**Thevenin’s Theorem**

Thevenin’s theorem was formulated for resistive networks by French physicist M. Leon. Thevenin, who proposed it in 1883. It may be enunciated as follows

Any two terminal networks consisting of linear impedance and emf sources may be replaced by a single voltage source with a equivalent series resistance. It makes the solution of complicated networks quite quick and simple.

**Explanation of Thevenin Theorem**

Consider a simple circuit, to determine the current through load resistance R_{L}, we will proceed as under

**Step-1**

Remove the resistance R_{L} in which current is to be determined thus creating an open circuit between terminals A and B.

**Step-2**

Calculate the open circuit voltage V_{OC} (Thevenin voltage E_{th}) which appears across terminals A and B when they are open (i.e when R_{L} is removed.

**Step-3**

Replace the source (Battery) by its internal resistance r. When seen from the terminals A and B, the circuit consists of two parallel paths: one containing R_{2} and the other containing (R_{1}+r). The equivalent resistance R_{th} of the network, as viewed from these terminals is given as

The equivalent resistance is also called Thevenin resistance.

**Step-4**

Replace the entire network by a single source (Called Thevenin voltage) source having an emf E_{th} and internal resistance R_{th}. R_{L} (Load Resistance) is now connected back to its terminals A and B from where it was removed.

Determine current flowing through the load resistance R_{L} by applying ohm’s law.

**Applications of Thevenin’s Theorem**

- To calculate the current in particular branch in the networks Thevenin Theorem is used.
- Designing of electronic circuits.

The above applications are practical applications of thevenin theorem

**Limitations of Thevenin’s Theorem**

- Thevenin’s theorem cannot be applied to a networks which contains non-linear elements. This theorem is applicable only linear circuits or networks.
- Thevenin’s theorem cannot be used for determining the efficiency of the circuit.