Electrical Earthing

Electrical Earthing Earthing means connecting of the non current carrying parts of electrical device or equipment or the neutral point of the power system to the earth through a wire or conducting materials having very low resistance. An electrical earthing is very necessary for equipment and power system. It protects the electrical equipment and power […]

Interconnected System

Interconnected System The connection of many generating stations such as hydro power plant, Thermal power plant, Nuclear power plant etc running in parallel is called interconnected system. The interconnected system may be two types (i) Integrated and (ii) Uni-integrated. An integrated interconnection results in maximum overall economy. But most of the system interconnections are unintegrated. […]


Wattmeter Wattmeter is an instrument which is used to measure electric power in the circuit. It measure electrical power in watt. Electric power is the product of current and voltage but in case of ac circuits power factor (cos Φ) is multiplied by an electric power. In this article, we will discuss about basic construction […]


WHAT IS DIAC? A diac belongs to thyristor family. Once it is triggered, it starts conducting in both directions. It is similar to diode but there is a main difference between diode and diac.  The diode conducts in one direction, when it is forward biased. On the other hand, diac conducts in both directions or […]

Underground Cables

Underground Cables Underground Cables are used for transmission and electric poser in congested areas (Such as in cities, towns etc) at comparatively low at medium voltages. Usually, the underground cables used in congested cities or towns, substations, railway crossings and where safety is very important. However, recent improvements in the design and manufacture have led […]

Electrical Transducer

Electrical Transducer There are number of physical or non-electrical quantities which can be measured with the help of electrical or electronic instruments. Transducer plays very important role in industries.  Basically, an instrumentation system consists of three main parts, namely input device, a signal conditioning device and an output device. The output device may be a […]

Buchholz Relay

Buchholz Relay Buchholz relay is a protective and gas actuated relay . It is used in that transformer whose winding is  immersed in oil and rating having more than 500KVA. It is used to the transformer against internal or incipient faults only. Basically, it is used for detection of winding faults. Buchholz relay is invented […]


Transistor Transistor is a three terminals (namely emitter, collector, base) three layer and two junction semiconductor device. It is used to amplify or process an electrical signal. A transistor consists of two two pn junctions formed either P type or N type semiconductor between a pair of opposite types. There are two types transistor. PNP […]

Bus-Bar Arrangements

Bus-Bar Arrangements When a number generators or feeders have same voltage then there is necessity to connect all unit electrically, bus-bars are used as the common electrical component. In this article, we will discuss about different bus-bar arrangements. What is Bus-Bar? Bus-Bar are thick copper rods which is operate at constant voltage and carrying an […]

EMF Equation for Transformer

EMF Equation for Transformer For drive an emf equation for transformer we will consider the case of an ideal transformer. An ideal transformer one which have no copper loss(I2R losses) and magnetic leakage flux. In other words, we can say that an ideal transformer consists of windings which have zero ohmic resistance and loss-free core. […]