Insulating Materials

Insulating materials are the materials that is able to insulate. It prevent the current flows through them. The materials that posses insulating properties is called an insulator. In this article, we will study about classification, Properties, applications of insulating materials.




Classification of insulating Materials

Insulating Materials are divided into three types

  • Solid insulating materials
  • Liquid insulating materials
  • Gaseous insulating materials

Solid Insulating Materials

Solid insulating materials are used to protect the electrical cables and wires.  A layer solid insulating materials deposits on the conductors used in cables or wires. Solid insulating materials are also used to make switch board sheets, switches etc.

Different Types of Solid Insulating Materials

  • Fibrous materials

Examples of Fibrous Materials

wood, paper and card board, insulating textiles etc.

  • Impregnated fibrous materials
  • Non resinous materials

Examples of Non resinous materials

asphalts, bitumens, waxes etc.

  • Ceramics

Examples of Ceramics

porcelain, steatite, titanate, etc.

  • Natural and synthetic rubbers

Examples of Natural and synthetic rubbers

natural rubber, hard rubber, butyl rubber, neoprene, hypalon, silicon rubber etc.

  • Mica

Liquid Insulating Materials

Liquid insulating materials are used in circuit breakers and capacitors. Oil is the example of liquid insulating materials.

Different types of liquid insulating materials

  • Oils
  • Varnishes





Gaseous Insulating Materials

Some gases are also good insulators. These gases are used in circuits breakers and many other devices.

Examples of Gaseous Insulating Materials

Carbon dioxide (CO2), Dry air, nitrogen, etc.

Properties of Insulating Materials

An good insulating materials should have following properties:-

  • Insulating materials should have high resistivity in the order of mega ohm so that, no current flows through it.
  • Insulating materials should have low thermal conductivity.
  • Insulating materials should be chemically inert.
  • Insulating materials should have high dielectric strength at the specified temperature
  • Insulating materials should be such that it does not affected by moisture.

Applications of Insulating Materials

  • Insulator are used transmission line towers.
  • Insulating materials coating is used over the cables and wires.
  • Insulating materials used in all hand held electrical tools to prevent their user from electrical shock hazard.